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Workstation 4.0

Installation and Configuration
Managing Resources
Running Applications
Monitoring and Optimisation



Min Recommended
486 Pentium
12Mb 16Mb
120Mb HD  


HPFS converted to NTFS using ACLCONV.EXE

FAT converted to NTFS using CONVERT.EXE

Cannot upgrade from Win95 to NT 4

Installation and Configuration


Winnt32 – for Windows NT 3.5 and above only.
/O – Create boot floppies and install
/OX – Create boot floppies and don’t install
/B – Install without boot floppies
/S – Read source files from any drive other than current
/T – drive to contain temp setup files
/X – Do not create floppies
/F – Do not verify files copied to floppy
/C – Skip free space check on floppies


Unattended Installs

UNATTEND.TXT – install or upgrade NT Workstation on multiple machines with similar configuration.
WINNT /S:d:\i386 /U:c:\unattend.txt
Unattend.txt = answer file
Create by hand or use the SETUPMGR.EXE
  1. Create answer files for each hardware platform.
  2. Add the line OemPreinstall=Yes to the [Unattended] section.
  3. Add the line JoinDomain= to the [Network] section.
  4. Create a UDF with a section for each computer that specifies the user name and computer name.
  5. Install a reference computer.
  6. Run sysdiff.exe /snap
  7. Install the applications on the reference computer
  8. Run sysdiff.exe /diff to create the difference file.
  9. Add the command sysdiff.exe /apply to the $OEM$\Cmdlines.txt
  10. Start the install of the workstations by specifying the answer and UDF files in the winnt.exe command.




WINNT /S:d:\i386 /U:c:\unattend.txt /UDF:ID1,udf.txt
The functionality of the UDF is to merge or replace specific sections of the answer file for the GUI portion of setup.
Join domain in Network Section



Snap – Creates image of base installation, including registry and file system.
Diff – Creates image of changes since original snapshot
Apply – Applies the diff file to another installation
Inf – Creates an .INF file. Used with /I for automating application install along with NT
Dump – Creates a directory list of the changes in a diff file.




To remove Windows NT 4.0 on FAT partition boot from an MS-DOSฎ disk and run SYS.COM, then delete the directories created by Windows NT setup.
If the system is NTFS you must delete and recreate the partition to remove Windows NT.
Run fdisk to remove NT.



Mandatory profiles – local or roaming (NTUSER.MAN)
If PDC fails, user gets last locally cached profile or the default profile for the workstation.
If user has never logged on then default profile is returned.
System app in control panel and user manager can be used to create a roaming user profile.



\NetLogon dir of a PDC
System policy overrides the HKEY_CURRENT_USER and HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE hives.
System policies override local, roaming or mandatory profiles.
Individual system policies override system policies for groups and for default user.
If conflicts occur individuals Policy overrides the workstation policy.
Only one system policy is needed for all users in a domain.



Explorer interface
Search for keys, values, and data throughout entire registry.



File Manager interface
Only search for keys
Can alter any security settings
Thread is the smallest schedulable unit on the system.
Black screen – refresh rate, desktop area, color pallet.


Managing Resources

NTFS Security

If you move files within the same NTFS partition, they will retain their original permissions.
Any NTFS copy always inherits the new parents’ permissions.
File creation, copy, and moves from one NTFS partition to another will inherit the parents folder’s permissions.
All NTFS permissions are lost when files are moved or copied from NTFS to FAT



Manage printer permissions from remote client using NT Explorer
Change Spooler location: Printer folder, select Server Properties, Advanced, enter new path. (must restart the print server for change to take effect)
Default path: c:\winnt\system32\spool\
To reprint a document. Select restart from the document menu in printer folder.
To redirect documents to a print device on a different server. Add logical port and provide the print server name and share name.
To create individual spool files create files under: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Printers
To move spool files either: create in registry or use Advanced properties for the print server.
Use print jobs properties (right click on print job, properties) to change priority, reschedule and notify user when job is complete.
Cannot delete, create, or configure ports over a network. Must be done on local server.
To change print modes (PCL) use separator page.
To print from MS-DOS app: map a physical port to the network printer. ‘net use LPTx : \\server\printer’
Printers in a pool always share the same printer name and driver



NT Server 3.5 or higher
NT Advanced Server 3.1
NTW 3.1 or higher
Win 3.11




RAID 0 – No tolerance, fastest speed (Disk striping without parity, volume sets).
RAID 1 – Fault tolerant, slowest (Disk mirroring (slower), duplexing (faster)).
RAID 5 – Fault tolerant, intermediate speed (Disk striping with parity)


Disk Admin

‘Commit changes Now’ on partition menu
You cannot delete the system partition or any part of a partition set without deleting the entire set.


General Disk

ONLY mirror sets can contain the system or boot partitions. HOWEVER boot and/or system can be on a different partition on the same physical disk.


Mirroring / Duplexing

To recover from failure, install new drive, break the mirror and then recreate.


Volume Set

Spread over multiple physical disks



Disk striping without parity

Minimum of 2 physical disks
To recover from failure, you have to install from backup
Fastest read/write out of all disk sets


Disk striping with parity

3 – 32 physical drives
To recover from failure, install new drive and regenerate (on fault tolerance menu) the strip from disk admin.
To recover from multiple disk failure, you have to restore from backup.
For 3 disks disk space will be used for parity info. For 4 disks ผ will be used.
Fastest read for fault tolerant systems.




1 Connection
Connect through PSTN, ISDN, X.25, PPTP
Only supports PPP – SLIP is not supported for dialup.
PPP has more overhead than SLIP but provides error checking & recovery.
Default for PPP is IP assigned by server
NetBIOS gateway is established between server and client.
Supports IP and IPX routing
Supports NetBIOS and winsock apps
Supports IP, IPX and NetBEUI both dial-in and out.
AutoDial does not support NWLink (only IP and NetBEUI)
If slow TCP connection put LMHOSTS (WINS) and HOST (DNS) on client. If LMHOSTS have #PRE tag, IP addresses are cached.
RAS logging if registry enabled - \winnt\System32\RAS
Callback doesn’t work with Multilink
Security – Security tab of phonebook, outbound. Network Protocol Configuration, inbound.
Allow any auth including clear text – (PAP) – Used to connect to non-NT Server.
Require encrypted auth – (CHAP) – Used to connect to non-NT Server.
Require MS encrypted auth – (MS-CHAP – Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)




Change passwords - setpass for 3.x and Ctrl-Alt-Del for 4.x
Need CSNW installed to change passwords
NetWare syscon utility runs under NTW4
Bindery – preferred server
NDS Tree – default tree, context option
Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW)
Enables NT to access NW file and print services directly.
Enables NT to act as a gateway to NW resources. Non-NW clients can access NW.
All access through a single connection to NW.
Supports both NSD and bindery.
Server Message Block (SMB) (NT, 95, WfW) can access a share through GSNW.
GSNW essentially enables you to create an NT share for a resource on a NW server. MS clients that use SMB can then access the share even if they don’t have NW client software.
Add a NTGATEWAY group to the NW server.
Client Services for NetWare (CSNW)
CSNW allows NT Workstation to access file & print on NW.
CSNW is incorporated in GSNW for NT Server.
Options under CSNW
Notify when Printed
Add Form Feed – ejects blank page after each print job
Print Banner
File and Print Services for NetWare (FPNW)
Allows NW clients to access NT resources.
Sold as an add-on for NT
Directory Service Manager for NetWare (DSNW)
Add-on – integrates NW and NT user and group info.
Allows single network login.
Migration Tool for NetWare
Only installed after GSNW
NT using NWLink can connect to client/server app on NW (without requiring additional services).
A NW client running IPX can access an NT server running FPNW.
NW client that supports Named Pipes, winsock, IPX can access a NWLink-enabled NT Server running a server-based app, such as SQL Server.
Default frame type before 3.12 = 802.3
Default frame type 3.12, 4.x = 802.2
With networks older than 3.12 manual detection MUST be used.




Can provide NetBIOS name, DNS, WINS, default gateway.
After 50% of lease, client will ask DHCP to renew lease. If the server is down then after 87.5% of time client will broadcast to any DHCP server.



To map a drive on the internet \\\Exam


Peer Web Services



Running Applications


VDM is a Win32 process to host DOS app
WOW is a Win32 process hosted by a VDM process to host a Win16 app
Each DOS app has own VDM - single thread and separate memory space. Therefore they can’t share memory space.
All Win16 apps are launched within same WOW instance, unless otherwise specified.
WOW - shared memory space, but single thread for each process.
If Win16 apps use DDE they do NOT have to share the default NTVDM
Win32 apps launched separately.
OS/2 v1 and POSIX 1 support is text/character based only.
Autoexec.NT used for TSRs
Config.NT used to load system files needed for running Win16 apps


Running applications

Priorities (/low, /normal, /high, /realtime)
/min, /max
Separate NTVDMs (/separate


DOS Properties

Font – bitmap or true type
Memory – expanded (XMS), extended(EMS) or protected(DMPI)


Monitoring and Optimisation

Default size - RAM + 12Mb for system
Config Page file - Change button / performance tab / system app - remember to hit Set - changes only take place after reboot
Optimising page file = create one file per physical disk except boot partition.
Move page file to disk with lowest disk activity - i.e. not the boot partition.
Large Page file - apps take longer to start, disk fragmentation
Do not place page file on stripe disk with parity
Min memory used - Up to 10 connections
Balanced - Up to 64 connections
File Sharing - 64 or more connections, file server (Access)
Network - 64 or more connections, SQL Server


Performance Monitors

To use Network Performance monitors – Network Monitor Agent must be installed
To use TCP/IP – SNMP must be installed
Diskperf.exe –y to use disk monitoring
Only one user, group or machine can be selected for an alert (If its an administrative alert then more than one user can receive it)



Pages/Sec – excessive disk paging – add more ram.
Available bytes – virtual memory available.
Committed bytes – memory in use by apps.
% Processor Time – Amount of time processor is in use.
Processor Queue Length – Number of threads waiting to be processed.
Interrupts/Sec – If interrupts/sec increases and processor time does not might be faulty hardware sending out bogus interrupts.
% Disk Time – Amount of time the disk is in use.
Average Disk Queue Length – how many system requests are waiting for disk access.


Event Viewer

Only local administrators can see the security log.


Task Manager

Applications – current applications in use.
Processes – All processes in memory and details on CPU usage.
Performance – systems performance.




Cant boot from ERD
Create ERD using rdisk.exe
Rdisk.exe /s – backs up user account and file security
ERD checks system files, start up and boot sector of partition
Cannot verify or replace the master boot record


Use DUMPEXAM to examine dump files
System log contains info about services and drivers that fail to start


Boot Floppy

NTBOOTTDD.SYS – if BIOS translation is disabled
BOOTSECT.DOS – if multiboot



Used to diagnose an application error.
Also used to create a memory dump file
Can create dump file from CP-System and drwtson


ARC Names

Multi(x) Controller card, starts at 0
Scsi(x) Scsi controller when BIOS is disabled. Starts at 0
Disk(x) Scsi disk number. If multi then = 0. Starts at 0.
Rdisk(x) Disk number. If scsi then = 0. Starts at 0.
Partition(x) Partition number. Starts at 1.