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Exam Details

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NT 4.0 Server Exam Notes :

Planning

Minimum Requirements – NT Server
486DX/33
16Mb RAM
130Mb HD
FAT32 – Win95 only

 

Installation & Configuration

winnt32 – for Windows NT 3.5 and above
winnt / winnt32 switches:
/O – Create boot floppies
/OX – Create boot floppies
/B – Install without boot floppies
/S – Reading source files from any drive other than the current drive
/T – Specifies a drive to contain temp setup files
/X – Do not create floppies
/F – Do not verify files copied to floppies
/C – Skip free-space check on floppies

 

Managing Resources 

Printing
Manage printer permissions from remote client using NT Explorer
Change Spooler location: Printer folder, select Server Properties, Advanced, enter new path. (must restart the print server for change to take effect)
Default path: c:\winnt\system32\spool\
To reprint a document. Select restart from the document menu in printer folder.
To redirect documents to a print device on a different server. Add logical port and provide the print server name and share name.
To create individual spool files create files under: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Printers
To move spool files either: create in registry or use Advanced properties for the print server.
Use print jobs properties (right click on print job, properties) to change priority, reschedule and notify user when job is complete.
Cannot delete, create, or configure ports over a network. Must be done on local server.
To change print modes (PCL) use separator page.
To print from MS-DOS app: map a physical port to the network printer. ‘net use LPTx : \\server\printer
Printers in a pool always share the same printer name and driver

 

 

SHARES
Subdirectories inherit permission of the parent dir as default share permissions.
Promote a BDC to a PDC using Server Manager.
If user belongs to multiple groups least restrictive rights take precedence.
If resource has File and Share Securities enabled: the MOST RESTRICTIVE takes precedence.
No access = NO ACCESS!

 

NTFS vs. FAT
If you move files within the same NTFS partition, they will retain their original permissions
If you move a file between different NTFS partition the file inherits the compression of the folder. If moved within the same partition, then save original attributes.

 

FAT
No local security
Convert to NTFS using convert.exe
File moved from FAT to NTFS retains attributes and long file name (LFN)

 

NTFS
Local security
Cannot convert to FAT, must be deleted and recreated
File moved from NTFS to FAT do not retain attributes or security BUT do retain LFN

 

 

FAULT TOLERANCE
RAID 0 – No tolerance, fastest speed (Disk striping without parity, volume sets).
RAID 1 – Fault tolerant, slowest (Disk mirroring (slower), duplexing (faster)).
RAID 5 – Fault tolerant, intermediate speed (Disk striping with parity)

 

Disk Admin
‘Commit changes Now’ on partition menu
You cannot delete the system partition or any part of a partition set without deleting the entire set.

 

General Disk
ONLY mirror sets can contain the system or boot partitions. HOWEVER boot and/or system can be on a different partition on the same physical disk.

 

Mirroring / Duplexing
RAID 1
To recover from failure, install new drive, break the mirror and then recreate.
Volume Set
RAID 0
Spread over multiple physical disks

 

Disk striping without parity
RAID 0
Minimum of 2 physical disks
To recover from failure, you have to install from backup
Disk striping with parity
RAID 5
3 – 32 physical drives
To recover from failure, install new drive and regenerate (on fault tolerance menu) the strip from disk admin.
To recover from multiple disk failure, you have to restore from backup.
For 3 disks disk space will be used for parity info. For 4 disks Ό will be used.
Fastest read for fault tolerant systems.

 

Groups
Global groups are assigned to local groups
Global groups only created on domain controllers
Local groups are assigned rights or permissions to resources.
Global groups can only contain user accounts from the domain in which they reside.

 

Users
User and group accounts cannot be recreated once they have been deleted.

 

Profiles and Policies
Logon scripts should be exported from the PDC to all BDC
ONLY servers can be used for export
All files to be exported need to be in a sub dir of: \winnt\System32\Repl\Export
Default export dir for logon scripts: \winnt\System32\Repl\Export\Scripts

 

Connectivity

DHCP – NetBIOS name, DNS, WINS, default gateway.
After 50% of lease time a client will ask DHCP for renewal of lease. If server not available then after 87.5% of time client will broadcast to any DHCP server available.
Binding ONLY has any effect on the client side.

NetWare

Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW)
Enables NT to access NW file and print services directly.
Enables NT to act as a gateway to NW resources. Non-NW clients can access NW.
All access through a single connection to NW.
Supports both NDS and bindery based NW systems.
Server Message Block (SMB) (NT, 95, WfW) can access a share through GSNW.
GSNW essentially enables you to create an NT share for a resource on a NW server. MS clients that use SMB can then access the share even if they don’t have NW client software.
Add a NTGATEWAY group to the NW server.

 

Client Services for NetWare (CSNW)
CSNW allows NT Workstation to access file & print on NW.
CSNW is incorporated in GSNW for NT Server.

 

File and Print Services for NetWare (FPNW)
Allows NW clients to access NT resources.
Sold as an add-on for NT

 

Directory Service Manager for NetWare (DSNW)
Add-on – integrates NW and NT user and group info.
Allows single network login.

 

Migration Tool for NetWare
Only installed after GSNW
NT using NWLink can connect to client/server app on NW (without requiring additional services).
A NW client running IPX can access an NT server running FPNW.
NW client that supports Named Pipes, winsock, IPX can access a NWLink-enabled NT Server running a server-based app, such as SQL Server.
Default frame type before 3.12 = 802.3
Default frame type 3.12, 4.x = 802.2
With networks older than 3.12 manual detection MUST be used.

 

RAS

NT Server = 256 Concurrent connections
NT Workstation = 1 connection.
Connect through PSTN, ISDN, X.25, PPTP
Only supports PPP – SLIP is not supported for dialup.
PPP has more overhead than SLIP but provides error checking and recovery
NetBIOS gateway is established between server and client.
Supports IP and IPX routing
Supports NetBIOS and winsock apps
Supports IP, IPX and NetBEUI both dial-in and out.
AutoDial does not support NWLink (only IP and NetBEUI)
If slow TCP connection put LMHOSTS (WINS) and HOST (DNS) on client. If LMHOSTS have #PRE tag, IP addresses are cached.
Security – Security tab of phonebook, outbound. Network Protocol Configuration, inbound.
RAS logging if registry enabled - \winnt\System32\RAS

 

Security
Allow any auth including clear text – (PAP) – Used to connect to non-NT Server.
Require encrypted auth – (CHAP) – Used to connect to non-NT Server.
Require MS encrypted auth – (MS-CHAP – Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)

 

Monitoring & Optimisation

Default size - RAM + 12Mb for system
Config Page file - Change button / performance tab / system app - remember to hit Set - changes only take place after reboot
Optimising page file = create one file per physical disk except boot partition.
Move page file to disk with lowest disk activity - i.e. not the boot partition.
Large Page file - apps take longer to start, disk fragmentation
Do not place page file on stripe disk with parity
Min memory used - Up to 10 connections
Balanced - Up to 64 connections
File Sharing - 64 or more connections, file server (Access)
Network - 64 or more connections, SQL Server

 

Performance Monitor
To use network monitors, Network Monitor Agent must be installed on the Server.
To use TCP/IP related monitors SNMP must be installed.
To use the disk monitors run diskperf.exe –y
Only one user, group or machine can be selected for an alert (If its an administrative alert then more than one user can receive it)

 

Monitors
Pages/Sec – excessive disk paging – add more ram.
Available bytes – virtual memory available.
Committed bytes – memory in use by apps.
% Processor Time – Amount of time processor is in use.
% Disk Time – Amount of time the disk is in use.
Average Disk Queue Length – how many system requests are waiting for disk access.

 

Troubleshooting

Cant boot from ERD
Create ERD using rdisk.exe
Rdisk.exe /s – backs up user account and file security
ERD checks system files, start up and boot sector
Use DUMPEXAM to examine dump files
System log contains info about services and drivers that fail to start

 

NTBackup
Incremental – less time to back up, more to restore
Differential – more time to back up, less to restore
Default log to \Winnt\BACKUP.LOG
Cannot backup remote registry

 

Boot Floppy
BOOT.INI – edit ARC
NTLDR
NTDETECT.COM
NTBOOTTDD.SYS – if BIOS translation is disabled
BOOTSECT.DOS – if multiboot

 

ARC Names
Multi(x) Controller card, starts at 0
Scsi(x) Scsi controller when BIOS is disabled. Starts at 0
Disk(x) Scsi disk number. If multi then = 0. Starts at 0.
Rdisk(x) Disk number. If scsi then = 0. Starts at 0.
Partition(x) Partition number. Starts at 1.