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i-Net +

INTERNET BASICS

1.1 Describe a URL, its functions and components, different types of URLs, and the use of the appropriate type of URL to access a given type of server. Content may include the following:
· Address – Every host must have a unique IP address. This address is a 32-bit binary number written in decimal format as four octets (for example: 1.2.3.4). Because they are just decimal representations of binary numbers, each octet must have a value between 0 and 255. The first octet identifies the class of network, with the following being valid entries:

1 – 126

Class A

128 – 191

Class B

192 – 223

Class C

224 – 239

Class D (multicast)

         Port – TCP and UDP use port numbers for services. The port numbers for common services are:

21

FTP

23

Telnet

25

SMTP

80

HTTP/WWW

110

POP3

119

NNTP

389

LDAP

These ports are the default, and if you change the service to another port, those accessing it must specify the new port in their request. For example, if the web service is changed from port 80 to port 800, the URL to access the site ds-technical.com becomes: http://www.ds-technical.com:800


1.2 Identify the issues that affect Internet site functionality (e.g., performance, security and reliability). Content may include the following:
· Internet connection points – the majority of users access the Internet through ISPs.
· Internet Service Provider (ISP) – ISPs access the Internet through Network Access Points (NAPs).
· Corrupt files – corruption can occur at any time and prevent users from accessing your resources successfully. It is important to test your files before posting/uploading them, and to always continue to check them for corruption and correct, as needed.
· Inability to open files – can be caused by browser dependencies. Try to avoid browser dependencies whenever and wherever possible.
 Resolution of graphics – is the number of determining factor in the clarity of the graphics, and is expressed in bits: the greater the number of bits, the better the graphic. While 24-bit graphics are perfect for an ideal world, if you want to serve all users, you should use 8-bit graphics as that is as high as you can go and support the 256-color monitors still in use.

1.3 Describe the concept of caching and its implications. Content may include the following:
· Client caching – allows sites revisited to be brought to the browser quickly
· Cleaning out client-side cache – should be done on a routine basis – such as with Tweak/UI that can do so on each boot or activation – and can restore hard drive space
· Corrupt files
·Searching your site – can be graphically represented via a site map.
· Indexing your site for a search – can be accomplished with an Index server. You can exclude words from the search by creating a “noise” list.

INTERNET CLIENTS

2.1 Describe the infrastructure needed to support an Internet client. Content could include the following:
· Operating system - The stack is implemented differently in different operating systems, Windows-based operating systems implement it as a DLL - Winsock
· Web browser – uses port 80 by default, and can be configured with a number of features (caching, cookie acceptance, etc.) . The most popular browsers, at this time, are Netscape and Internet Explorer – both of which run on multiple operating system platforms.
· Hardware platform (PC, WebTV, Internet phone) – the one necessity is the TCP/IP protocol.

2.2 Describe the use of Web browsers and various clients (e.g., FTP clients, Telnet clients, email clients, all-in-one clients/universal clients) within a given context of use. Examples of context could include the following:
· The basic commands you would use (e.g., put and get) with each client (e.g., FTP, Telnet) – to place a single file on an FTP site, you use the put command. To place multiple files on an FTP site, you can use mput. To retrieve a single file from an FTP site, use get, or use mget to retrieve multiple files.  With telnet, the command to initiate the session is telnet itself, the location to go to, for example:

Telnet 1.2.3.4
                Or
Telnet redial.com

Once a connection is established, you must logon to the server with a valid username and password (plain text) as if you were sitting at the server.  You can end the connection a number of ways, with exit being the most common command, then close the telnet application.

2.3 Explain the issues to consider when configuring the desktop. Content could include the following:
· Host file configuration – the host file must exist on every machine that is performing host name-to-IP address resolution in order for it to work properly. It can consist of an unlimited number of lines, with each line limited to 255 characters in length. The format for the file is that the first column is an IP address, and all other columns on that line (separated by any white space – tab, space, etc.) are aliases for that IP address. The pound sign (#) anywhere on a line makes the rest of the line a comment.
· Configuring browser (proxy configuration, client-side caching) – proxy servers can be configured to do active caching – to automatically retrieve pages that are commonly viewed and store them locally for access for users.

 

2.4 Describe MIME types and their components. Content could include the following:
· When troubleshooting problems, look for revision dates, and manufacturer/vendor values and use them to determine if you have the most current software available. Troubleshooting problems and performance issues can often be tied to compatibility issues and differing versions of the Web browser.

2.6 Explain the function of patches and updates to client software and associated problems. Content could include the following:
 Patches should never be blindly applied as you run the risk of taking a working system and making changes that can adversely affect performance. When new patches become available, you should always download them and carefully read the documentation, which accompanies them. If you are experiencing none of the problems addressed by the patch, or there would be no performance gain by applying it, then do not apply it. If the patch looks beneficial, then try it on a single system first to look for problems that might arise before rolling it out to all computers.

2.7 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using a cookie and how to set cookies. Content could include the following:
· API – The Application Programming Interfaces are the building blocks by which Windows-based software applications are built by programmers.
· SQL – the Structured Query Language is used to find/place information in a database. Using ODBC (Open DataBase Connectors), the Web server can interact with a SQL server and pull up information such as from a catalog database and post the results in HTML to the user.
·DLL – Dynamic Linking Libraries are the method by which common executable routines are made available in the Windows-based environment. Drivers and executables depend upon DLLs to provide functionality that can be accessed, making programming much easier.
· Java – an object-oriented programming language created by Sun Microsystems that allows programs to be run in almost every operating system (via a Java Virtual Machine)
· Perl – Practical Extraction and Report Language – an interpretive language (requires an interpreter) that can be used to write CGI scripts and perform text processing tasks
· C++ - the object-oriented counterpart to C. It is used for graphical environments and runs on most operating systems.
· VBScript – a non-compiled scripting language based on Visual Basic that allows controls to be added to web pages.
· XML – eXtensible Markup Language – allows multiple HTML links (versus the standard one) and is a chopped down version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). It is useful for shopping sites and others that can have multiple results needed for an action. Many believe XML will replace HTML eventually for writing web pages.
· ASP – Active Server Pages run only on the Windows NT platform and allow processing to be done on the server (which sends back pure HTML) and on the client (which is processed within the browser, but can be viewed in Source.)

3.3 Describe the differences between a relational database and a non-relational database.

A flat-file database holds all data in one solitary table, while a relational database stores data in different tables (each of which can be in a different format). Relational databases are far more complicated than flat-file databases, but also much more flexible and scalable for big installations.

3.4 Identify when to integrate a database with a Web site and the technologies used to connect the two.

A database should be integrated with a web site anytime you need to return values from it to the user, or input values from the user into it. In the first scenario, a database could be used to show inventory on hand when queried by partners in  your extranet. In the second scenario, a database could be used to collect mailing addresses from users who want to receive your catalog.
ODBC - Open DataBase Connector – allows the Web server to interact with a SQL server.

3.5 Demonstrate the ability to create HTML pages.

Always employ cross-browser coding in your html, and verify compatibility between different browsers. Know that using the <UL> syntax will produce a non-ordered, non-numbered list. Using the <OL> syntax will produce a numbered and ordered list. To insert a command to run a script, use the syntax: <script language="JavaScript">.

The correct syntax for a link to D S Technical Solutions is <A HREF="http://www.ds-technical.com">D S Technical</A>. To insert an image, the correct syntax is <IMG SRC="image.gif ">

The "&copy; " syntax produces the copyright symbol - ©. The <tr> syntax is used to signify rows in a table and is not a required component on all HTML pages.

3.6 Identify popular multimedia extensions or plug-ins. Examples could include the following:
· Flash – from Macromedia, allows you to create vector-based web sites
· Real Player – plays RealAudio and RealVideo files on the Windows and Mac operating systems
· Network access points – NAPs are how/where ISPs connect to the Internet and effectively form the backbone.
· E-mail
· Website

4.3 Describe Internet domain names and DNS. Content could include the following:
· Hierarchical structure – DNS is organized in such a manner with the root of the naming tree being “.” and everything funneling down from it, as in bubba.ds-technical.com. which breaks out to:

.

the root server

Com

commercial venture

ds-technical

the company

bubba

the computer in question

If bubba is the primary server for the organization and running the web server, then www.ds-technical.com becomes bubba.ds-technical.com.
·Top level or original domains – edu, com, mil, net, gov, and org – exist within the United States. Outside of the United States, two letter country level domains are used, such as  .UK, .au, etc.

4.4 Describe the nature, purpose, and operational essentials of TCP/IP. Content could include the following:
·Public versus private IP addresses – when connecting to the Internet (meaning the world), you must have a unique IP address for every single host within the world. When you are not connecting to the world, however, then the addresses must only be unique within your network. Public addressing requires the uniqueness, while private addressing suggests that the following ranges be used:

Class of network desired

Starting address

Last available address

A

10.0.0.0

10.255.255.255

B

172.16.0.0

172.31.255.255

C

192.168.0.0

192.168.255.255

4.5 Describe the purpose of remote access protocols. Content could include the following:
· PPP – Point to Point Protocol - an enhancement to SLIP, it offers error correction, support for dynamic IP addressing, the use of protocols other than TCP/IP and password logons
· POP3 – used for retrieving mail
· HTTP – protocol of the web  service
· NNTP (news server) – allows subscription to news servers
· LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - is built on the X.500 standard and allows applications to obtain directory access and information.
· Telnet – allows establishment of a dumb terminal session
· Ping – an all-purpose utility for verifying that a remote host can be reached by bouncing bytes of data to it
· ARP – Address Resolution Protocol – shows the resolution between IP addresses and physical (MAC) addresses
· Network Analyzer – used to analyze packets of data sent across the network
· Network interface card – (NIC) the physical entity within the host to which the networking cabling is connected
· Modem setup and commands – most common commands are:

ATA

Answer

ATD

Dial

ATH

Hang up

ATX

Exit

· Bridge – used to connect two (and only two) networks together. Can be used with nonroutable protocols
· Cache-in-a-box – available from a number of vendors, essentially a hard drive on the network for storing cache
· Router – used to connect multiple networks together using routing tables – requires routable protocols
· Gateway – an upper layer device that can connect dissimilar networks together for the purpose of passing application data (such as email) back and forth
· Firewall – either a hardware or software entity that protects a network by stopping network traffic from passing through it. In most cases, a firewall is placed on the network to allow all internal traffic to leave the network (emails to the outside world, web access, etc.), but stop all traffic from the outside world from entering the internal network

4.9 Describe various types of Internet bandwidth technologies (link types). Content could include the following:
· T3/E3 – A T3 is a dedicated line of 672 channels (E3 is the European counterpart) able to run at speeds of 43Mbps
· X.25 – a packet-switching standard widely used in WANs
· DSL – see section 4.8

4.10 Describe the purpose of various servers – what they are, their functionality, and features. Content could include the following:
· Mail
· Cache - stores data
· Web (HTTP) -
· Certificate – issues security keys
· E-commerce – allows for commercial transactions with security implied
 Telnet – dumb terminal sessions


Auditing Consists of:

·         intrusion detection utilities

·         log files

·         auditing logs

SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) a standard for using digital signatures to uniquely identify users and allow for credit card transactions over the Internet


5.2 Describe VPN and what it does.
· Denial of service (DoS) attacks wherein the system is kept so busy responding to non-legitimate traffic/requests that it cannot service legitimate users.
· Ping floods - Flooding a site with ICMP echoes (also known as smurfing)
· User names and passwords – this is the minimal level of access that should be acceptable.
· The use of digital certificates
· Browser/client
· Intranet – with an Intranet, you isolate the site from the world (typically with a firewall), and do everything you can to keep outsiders from knowing the site exists or accessing it
· Internet – the purpose of an Internet site is for the world to know of its existence and come to it to learn of your products, data, information, and other offerings. By default, all users enter the site as the anonymous user and permissions are assigned to anonymous to affect all users

BUSINESS CONCEPTS

6.1 Explain the issues involved in copyrighting, trademarking, and licensing. Content could include the following:
· Scope of your copyright – copyrights apply to written works (versus patents for inventions and trademarks for symbols and trade names). A copyright owner has exclusive rights to the work for the life of the author plus fifty years. A fair use clause prohibits copyrighting material that cannot be construed as being unique.
· Consequences of not being aware of copyright issues, not following copyright restrictions – since the copyright is good for such a lengthy duration of time, there is no justifiable reason for violating such, and repercussions can occur at any time (no statute of limitations). Penalties are determined by the legal process and can range from restitution to more severe.

6.2 Identify the issues related to working in a global environment.

When working in a global environment, consider:
· International issues such as shipping, supply chain
· Legal and regulatory issues

6.3 Define the following Web-related mechanisms for audience development (i.e., attracting and retaining an audience):
· Intranet, Extranet, and Internet– see section 5.6

6.5 Define e-commerce terms and concepts. Content could include the following:
· Business to Business
· Internet commerce
· Online Cataloging
· Customer self-service