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Troubleshooting

The Emergency Repair Disk can verify the NT system files, inspect the system start-up environment and inspect the boot sector.

If the /s switch is used with Rdisk.Exe, then the Emergency Repair Disk program will backup user accounts and file security. To restore the user account database, start the computer with the setup disks, and select the Repair option when prompted.

When you run the emergency repair process to verify Windows NT system files, Windows NT will check the Setup.Log file on the Emergency Repair Disk to determine which files are installed during Windows NT Setup. Each installed file will also have a checksum. The repair process uses the checksums to verify the integrity of installed files.

System and boot partitions cannot be part of a volume set or a stripe set. Only a mirror set can include the system or boot partition. To recover from losing the system partition, run the NT setup program.

Dumpexam.Exe is used to view the contents of a memory dump file and export it to a text file. This information can be used to determine the cause of a STOP error. Configure the startup and location of a memory dump file in System Properties. Dumpchk.exe is only used to verify the creation of a Memory Dump File.

You can edit the Boot.Ini file and add the /sos switch to the end of the Windows NT entries in the [Operating Systems] section of the Boot.Ini file to display all driver names while they are being loaded.

To reprint a document jammed in a printer, select Restart from the document menu in the Printer folder.

 

Planning

Each domain database can store three types of accounts: user accounts, computer accounts and group accounts.

Each user account occupies 1 KB,

Each computer account uses 0.5 KB,

Each group account uses 4 KB.

The maximum recommend size of a domain database is 40 MB. Therefore a 40 MB domain database can support 26,000 user accounts (26 MB), 26,000 computer accounts (13 MB), and 250 group accounts (1 MB).

 

Installation and Configuration

To ensure that a server does not become a browse master change the registry entry MaintainServerList = No.

Creating Printing Pools

When you create a printer, you can associate it with more than one printing device in order to form a printing pool. A printing pool consists of two or more similar printing devices associated with one printer name. To set up a pool, you create a printer and assign it as many output ports as you have identical printing devices. Printing pools have the following characteristics:

All devices in the pool share the same print property settings and act as a single unit. For example, stopping one device pauses them all.

Print destinations can be of the same type or mixed (serial, parallel, and network).

When a job arrives for the printing pool, the spooler on the computer running Windows NT Server checks the destinations to see which device is idle. The first port selected gets checked first, the second port second, and so on. If your pool consists of a different type of port, make sure you select the fastest port first (network, then parallel, and then serial).

A printing pool can contain a mixture of printer interface types, but the printing devices must all use the same printer driver.

You can use Ntdetect.Chk in place of Ntdectect.com if Ntdetect.com fails to detect all hardware devices. Ntdetect.chk will display information on the screen as it detects hardware to help isolate the problem.

 

Monitoring and Optimization

To view network traffic generated from a particular machine, you can either use a capture filter or a display filter. Capture filters can be configured to capture network packet types (NetBIOS, SMB, etc.) or network frames addressed to or from a given machine. To capture all network frames being sent to KILROY, the line INCLUDE ANY --> KILROY could be coded in the capture filter. To capture all network frames being sent from KILROY, the line INCLUDE ANY <-- KILROY could be coded in the capture filter. Display filters are used to filter information once it has already been captured into the Network Monitor capture buffer.

The correct syntax for filtering by a specific protocol property on your computer would be a line specifying the type of frame (SMB), a colon, the type of property (Command), two equals signs and the frame type property for directory creation (Make Directory). The "<-->" symbol is used for address capturing.

 

Four server memory settings are available:

Minimize Memory Used

Allows memory to be allocated for up to approximately 10 network connections.

Balance

Provides memory for up to approximately 64 connections (default).

Maximize Throughput for File Sharing

Allocates maximum memory for file sharing operations.

Maximize Throughput for Network Applications

Optimizes server memory for distributed applications that do their own memory caching, such as Microsoft SQL Server.

 

Pulse:

The interval after which the Netlogon service looks for new changes to the database and sends a pulse (change notice) to the backup domain controllers. The default is 5 minutes.

PulseMaximum:

The interval after which the NetLogon service will send a pulse to the backup domain to verify the synchronization level, whether or not there are new changes to the database. The default is 2 hours.

PulseConcurrency:

The number of backup domain controllers which pulses are sent concurrently. A higher value increases the amount or network bandwidth required at each synchronization. The default is 10.

ReplicationGoverner:

Limits the amount of bandwidth the domain synchronization process can consume. Forces the NetLogon service to sleep between calls and use smaller buffers to allow other network traffic to pass. The default uses up to 100% of available bandwidth until synchronization is complete.

 

The Processor object type will have multiple instances if a system has multiple processors.

 

Managing Resources

To give a user in one domain access to a folder in a FAT partition in another domain, create a trust where the resource domain is the trusting domain and share the folder with the appropriate permissions.

When logging on remotely, a user's level of access can be determined by first determining his least restrictive level of access from NTFS, and his least restrictive level of access on the share he is using. The most restrictive level of access would then be determined using these two access levels. This would be the level of permission a user has for accessing an NTFS folder via a share.

To successfully merge new group policy files you created on your workstation with the existing policy files in the NTConfig.Pol file on the PDC, you need to copy the group policies from your workstation system policy file and paste these policies into the system policy file on the PDC (\Netlogon\NTConfig.Pol). Policies cannot be copied directly to a registry on another machine.

To enable a uniform policy (.pol) for all network computers running Windows NT Server, Windows NT Workstation, you save this file to the Netlogon folder in the system root folder of the primary domain controller: \\PDCservername\Netlogon.

Local Groups can contain Local Users, Global groups from the local and trusted domains and Users from trusted domains. Group permissions are cumulative.

In a master domain model, a users account in a trusting domain will automatically be a member of the Master\Domain Users global group and will have access to resources in any domain for which the Master\Domain Users global group has been granted permissions.

Roaming user profiles can be implemented in three ways:

Add a user profile path to each user account to automatically create an empty user profile folder named for the user in the server location and to allow users to create their own user profiles.

Add a user profile path to each user account and copy a pre-configured user profile to the user profile path specified in each user account.

Add a user profile path to each user account, copy a pre-configured user profile to the user profile path specified in each user account, and then rename the NTuser.dat file to NTuser.man in the user profile path specified in each user account. This creates a mandatory user profile.

In User Manager for Domains, you can assign a server location for user profiles. If you enter a user profile path into a user's domain account, a copy of the user's local user profile is saved both locally and in the user profile path location when the user logs off. The next time that user logs on, the user profile in the user profile path location is compared to the copy in the local user profile folder and the most recent copy of the user profile is opened. The local user profile becomes a roaming user profile by virtue of the centralized domain location. It is available wherever the user logs on, providing the server is available.

When multiple profiles apply to one user, a user profile for a specific user takes precedence over a user profile for a group that the user is a member of. Similarly, if no specific user profile has been defined for the user, a group profile for a group that includes the user is used, if available, before the Default User profile is used. If a user is a member of multiple groups, profiles are based upon Group Order.

 

 

Connectivity

A HOSTS file provides mappings of remote host names to IP addresses.

A LMHOSTS file provides mappings of IP addresses to NetBIOS names.

A DNS Name server is responsible for resolving IP addresses to fully qualified domain names. A HOSTS file can be regarded as a local DNS equivalent.

A DCHP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server is responsible for dynamically assigning and maintaining IP addresses for DCHP clients located on a local subnet.

A WINS server is used to resolve NetBIOS names to computer IP addresses in a routed network environment. A LMHOST file can be regarded as a local WINS equivalent.

 

If your network consists of two subnets and you want to use Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) to resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses on both subnets, the best way to install and configure WINS on your network to minimize network traffic and provide fault tolerance between the subnets of your network is to install a WINS server on each subnet, computers on each of the subnets can perform name resolution locally, thus decreasing the amount of network traffic from name resolution between subnets. By making each WINS server a push-pull partner of the other WINS server, the WINS database of each WINS server can be replicated to the other WINS server at regular intervals. This will allow each WINS server to provide local name resolution for all computer NetBIOS names in either subnet. It will also provide fault tolerance for the WINS database. Although installing a WINS proxy agent on one of the subnets may decrease network traffic, it will not provide fault tolerance for the WINS database. WINS servers cannot be multihomed.

WINS proxy agents are normally installed in a routed environment to provide faster name resolution to non-WINS-enabled clients on a subnet. WINS proxy agents intercept name resolution requests sent as b-node broadcasts from non-WINS-enabled clients and provides those clients with corresponding IP addresses. WINS proxy agents provide name resolution by either forwarding the intercepted request onto the WINS server or by answering the request directly using locally cached information. The WINS proxy agent's ability to provide name resolution using its local cache reduces the number of name resolution requests made to the WINS server. B-node broadcasts cannot be sent over a router.

There are two domains in your company, joined by a Windows NT server acting as a router, both domains are using TCP/IP as their communication protocol and one domain currently contains a DHCP server that manages IP addressing. To have the domain without the DHCP server domain to have its IP addressing managed by domain with the DHCP server, DHCP Relay Agent must be installed on the Windows NT server router.

Routing Information Protocol for Internet Protocol (RIP for IP) provides a dynamic approach to routing information across TCP/IP subnets. With RIP for IP installed on each router, IP datagrams can be sent from router to router based upon dynamic tables maintained by each router. RIP for IP reduces administrative overhead but may increase network traffic in large networks.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides connectionless oriented delivery.

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) resolves physical addresses to IP addresses

To maintain web pages for five new sites on your company's Intranet on one IIS server, you must assign each site's IP address to the network adapter card of the IIS server. You must create separate WWW folders for each site and assign the correct IP address for each site to each of these folders. A DNS server needs to be installed to provide DNS name resolution for the five new URL zones on your Intranet. A WINS server should also be installed and the DNS server should be configured to request NetBIOS name and IP address updates directly from the WINS server. This will reduce the administrative burden of maintaining entries on the DNS server for any new virtual servers. A DHCP server cannot be used to assign or manage multiple addresses on a single network adapter card.

To run the Migration Tool and to access NetWare servers, the Windows NT Server computer must be running the NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport and the Gateway Service for NetWare.

By default, when you transfer users from NetWare to Windows NT Server, users with names that already exist on the Windows NT Server domain are not transferred. Conflicts are recorded in the Error.log file.

A mapping file allows the greatest amount of control when migrating NetWare user accounts to a Windows NT domain. Mapping files can be used to migrate selected user accounts from NetWare servers, to standardize migrated user account names to match existing domain conventions, and to set passwords of migrated user accounts to unique user-supplied strings. Since NetWare passwords cannot be read by the Migration Tool, a mapping file must be used to ensure that migrated user accounts have passwords in the Windows NT domain that are the same as their NetWare user account passwords. Mapping files are also useful when performing large migrations involving many NetWare servers that contain multiple versions of the same user account names.

When File and Print Services for NetWare are installed on the Windows NT server (server solution), NetWare clients will be able to access files on the Windows NT server as if they were located on a NetWare server. When a Microsoft redirector is installed on each NetWare client machine (client solution), each NetWare client will generate requests to the Windows NT server for access to the remote files. The Windows NT server will process these requests and allow each client to access the files. Client Service for NetWare and Gateway Service for NetWare allow Windows NT client computers to directly access resources on NetWare servers.

Client Service for NetWare is designed for Windows NT workstations that require a direct link to NetWare servers.

Gateway Service for NetWare is used to allow Windows NT servers to map a drive to a NetWare server thus providing access to NetWare server resources for Windows NT workstations (via a gateway).

Windows NT server requires the NWLink protocol to allow NetWare clients and servers to access client-server applications running on it.